Eastwood Auto Restoration Blog - Free How-to Automotive Tech Advice for Everything DIY Automotive
Ok so you've got your MIG welder and you can finally make two pieces of metal stick together, but now you want to learn how to make those welds look nice AND be strong. In this quick 10 step guide we will give you the tips to make your welds look great, and be as strong as possible.
1. Cleanliness is King- We understand that there are times you can't always get a work area surgically clean when MIG welding, but you should take every step possible to do so if you want a clean, strong weld. The work area should be free of ALL rust, grease, and coatings. We have found that using a wire wheel on an Electric Angle Grinder makes quick work of rust, undercoating, and other coatings. Be sure to prep the work area before and after welding with Eastwood After Weld. You will amazed at how much better your weld puddle will form and look when performed on a clean surface.
2. Check your Gas- In order to make a clean weld, your weld puddle needs to be purified while it is being formed. This is where shielding gas comes into play. It is one of the other essential keys to making a clean weld. Make sure you have an adequate amount of gas coming out of the nozzle when welding, the amount needed can vary on the conditions where you are welding (try to be out of any direct moving air like fans, wind, etc), and the surfaces you are welding on. MIG welding can be done with machines that only use Flux Core MIG wire, but we suggest choosing a MIG Welder that is versatile enough to use gas as well. Welding with a shielding gas is the best way to make the cleanest weld with little to no clean up.
3. Sounds like Bacon- You want to set up your machine correctly before welding anything. If you aren't sure of the correct setting for the job, we suggest getting some metal that is the same gauge, and taking the extra time to set up your machine properly. The key to quickly dialing in your machine is listening to the sound of the arc when welding. You ideally want the arc to sound like "sizzling bacon", not too much popping or spitting, just a nice even sizzle/crackle sound. The next is to make sure the bead is nice and flat. A common error with beginners is that the bead is sitting very "proud" and piling up on top of the metal. In those cases you often times need to either turn the wire speed down, or the heat (voltage) up. Once you learn to listen to your welder and how the arc sounds, and how the bead "should look", your welds will instantly improve.
4.Proper Joint Construction- Another mistake when a beginner is welding up a joint, is that they leave too large or uneven of a gap in between the two panels they are joining. On some joints you may want a very small gap, but most there will be next to no gap between the panels when welding. Too large of a gap, and you will have difficulty with the bead burning the edges of the two panels away and opening the gap up even more. Again, taking the time to put together an even, tight gapped joint will make the final appearance and strength of the job much better. Our favorites for proper joint prep is our Intergrip Panel Clamps, Clecos Panel Holding System, and our Welding Clamp Plier Set, they really make the job much easier!
5. Check your Ground- Found your welder is welding poorly or inconsistently, even after testing your settings on some scrap metal? A good chance is that you have a poor ground. Not only do you want to have as clean of a work area as possible, but you need a clean surface to ground the machine through. A little tip if you don't have a good spot to clamp to, is to tack weld a bolt or a stud to the work area to get a good continuous ground. Try it, it really is handy!
6. Auto-Dimming Helmet; it's not just for NASA!- The age old tradition was to use a static darkness welding helmet when welding. These work "ok" if you are in a very well light area, or if you are good at flipping your helmet down and striking an arc all in one quick motion, but with the advancements in modern day welding accessories, it isn't necessary anymore. Now you can find affordable, quality Auto Dim Welding Helmets pretty easily. Being comfortable when welding helps you make quality welds, and allows you to properly see your work area before, during, and after you weld.
7. Stickout makes a difference- When setting up your machine, you need to make sure that you have the contact tip sticking out the correct amount for the type of welding you are doing. The general rule of thumb is that you want your welding tip to have less than 1/2" of stick out. If you are welding on thinner sheet metal like body panels, you can get away with a little more, but you need to stick in that range for most applications. Always check your stick out each time before welding.
8. The Angle matters- The angle of the tip when welding can also be just as important when running a bead. Ideally you should be straight on when doing quick spot or plug welds, while keeping approximately a 10 degree angle when welding with the pushing or pulling method is satisfactory.
9. Choose the correct wire size- In this case "bigger is better" is not always true. It all depends on the type of welding you are doing, and the surface you are welding on. If you are mostly working with thin metal like body panels of a car, you'd want to stick with .023 solid core wire. This will allow you to keep the temps down versus using a much thicker wire. And if you didn't know, too much heat equals metal warpage, which is BAD in the autobody world. Keep in mind though, if you are doing suspension or chassis work where the metal is substantially thicker, you'd want to upgrade to .30 or .35 solid core wire. This will require 110V machines (like our MIG 135) to run at the higher end of their voltage spectrum.
10. Be Safe- There are a lot of hazards when welding, a lot of them are quite obvious, while others can easily be overlooked. Make sure to wear the proper attire when welding. This means closed toe shoes (preferably leather work boots), long pants, Leather Welding Gloves, and a Welding Jacket. Dressing properly can save you from being severely burnt from the intense light and heat produced when welding. Also keep in mind that you need to keep your work area safe, which means covering or removing all flammable objects from your work area, as well as allowing for proper ventilation from any fumes that could be produced when welding.
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One dreaded job when working on anything with a motor, especially when doing a restoration, is working on the brake and fuel system. It's a tedious job, and often times messy. My biggest fear is probably the same as yours, you build a car, take the time to put new parts everywhere, new paint, etc, and you then flare new brake and fuel lines. When the time comes, you fill the system with fluid (or fuel), and when pressurized, you can only hope and pray one or more of your fittings don't leak. It's the WORST when they do, and only makes the job that much more tedious and messy.
You can eliminate leakage at the hardline fittings by taking a few essential steps to assure you have clean, uniform flares at each fitting. The biggest thing is to make sure you are using a quality tool that can perform metric DIN flares or "bubble flares". Not all tools are made to do this, and many require a 2-step process to produce them, which means more chances for error when making flares. I used to prefer the high end hydraulic flare tool by Snap-On, and after some practice, it too made really nice flares, but the 2 gripes I had with it was that you could first "overflare" the line. This is because it is a hydraulic system where you just pump the cylinder and you can't really feel much resistance; therefore you can easily flare the line so much it's deformed. Secondly, it required changing the dies which turns the job into a 2 step process. I like simplicity, and this wasn't it.
Here at Eastwood we have a compact Professional Brake Tubing Flaring Tool that will make most any flare you will commonly come across. I decided to cover one of the less-common types of flares that's often difficult to perfect. With this tool it makes the job a simple one step process that you can be assured won't leak.
The next most important thing to do when making flares in tubing is to use a tubing cutter with a sharp cutting wheel that isn't chipped or deformed.
Using a cut off wheel is also a recipe for leaks if you aren't extremely careful. A leak can start from the moment you cut the line to flare it. You NEED a straight, clean cut on the tubing so the flare can be uniform in shape. Also you can't always trust that the end on your brand new roll of brake line is straight. Even the factory can cut it uneven, and that can cause a subpar flare. Below I demonstrated a poor bubble flare on a piece of unevenly cut 3/16 brake line, next to a straight cut, properly formed bubble flare. Notice how the flare on the left has a line where the end of the tubing wasn't completely formed on half of the flare? That's because that side of the line was low from an uneven cut, and it wasn't properly flared. That fitting WILL LEAK.
Now that you've gotten your tubing cut square, you are ready to clamp the tubing into the flare tool. Since I was working on an older European car (VW Rabbit) with bubble flares, I chose the die with the "DIN" stamp on one end, and rotated the head of the tool to the matching DIN setting. From there I placed the bottom half of the die into the tool with the "DIN" stamping towards the head of the tool.
Next you want to set the brake line into the bottom half of the die, and make sure that the end of the brake line is square and flush with the "DIN" end of the die. From there you will install the top half of the die, flip the clamp down, install the pin in the clamp, and tighten the clamp until the die halves are firmly clamped together (we don't want that line wiggling back in the die!). Also be sure to lube the brake line up where you will be forming the flare. Some use copper anti-seize, others grease, but I go the simple route and spray some spray lubricant like WD-40 on the line.
Once your line is clamped and lubed, you simply pull the lever on the flaring tool in one steady motion until it "stops" (just about 90 degrees I found). One nice feature is that the tool has a definite point where it "stops", and I could easily tell when the flare was fully formed. It's as simple as that! Just remove the clamp on the die, the top half of the die, and then the brake line, and you are ready to install on the vehicle!
Below you can see an example of a flare I produced with our Professional Brake Tubing Flaring Tool versus an original flare off of the car. One of these flares could be made in literally under a minute, it makes doing a brake line job so much easier, and the tool pays for itself almost instantly!
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