Dual Voltage Powder Coating System - How To Use Instructions & Troubleshooting Guide
DIY Powder Coating: Hot Coat Instructions & Application
Powder Coating provides a premium coating ideal for many automotive, marine, home, and garden applications. EASTWOOD’S DUAL-VOLTAGE HOTCOAT® POWDER COATING SYSTEM is a breakthrough refinishing system for the home hobbyist providing professional performance at a fraction of the cost of industrial equipment. The cured finish resists most chemicals, fuels, acids, thinners, brake fluid, UV light, and is much more durable than liquid coatings. Powder coating is environmentally friendly! It produces no toxic wastes and uses no solvents. The
EASTWOOD DUAL-VOLTAGE HOTCOAT® POWDERCOAT SYSTEM allows you to coat a part and return it to service in less than an hour! Now you can powder coat any metal part that can withstand the 400°F (204°C) cure temperature utilizing an electric oven or our Infrared Light Cure System.
The DUAL-VOLTAGE CORONA CHARGE design utilizes exclusive EASTWOOD PULSE TECHNOLOGY to deliver a consistent, hard hitting fl ow of power providing the maximum powder coverage and adhesion possible. The Dual-Voltage capability of this unit allows the user to select a normal setting to deliver a High-Frequency 15,000 Volt charge to the powder for most powder coating jobs or an Ultra-High-Frequency 25,000 Volt charge to the powder to overcome hard to reach areas, provide solid multiple coat coverage or allow you to create custom effects, even with high
metallic content powders.
Read and understand all instructions and precautions before proceeding. This unit uses high voltage as well as powder which may become fl ammable under certain circumstances. Eastwood shall not be held liable for consequences due to deliberate or unintentional misuse of this product.
FLAMMABILITY HAZARD: Powder coating dust, like common household dust, when confined and suspended in air, poses a fire and potential explosion hazard if ignited. Good housekeeping, adequate ventilation, dust control and isolation from potential ignition sources is required! Sweep up unused powder from the fl oor. Do not vacuum unless the vacuum is equipped with an explosion-proof motor. Never smoke while powder coating. Do not apply powder coat near any source of ignition, e.g. open fl ames, sparks, etc.
Use the same precautions that you would for liquid solvent based coatings. DO NOT USE A GAS OVEN!
SAFETY TIP FOR COATING INTERNAL SURFACES: When coating internal areas such as boxes, tubing, inside corners etc., keep the Dual-Voltage power switch in the 15K setting and apply powder in stages so that a dense dust cloud will not form. Coat small areas at a time and allow cloud to dissipate before moving to next area. DO NOT TOUCH EMITTER TO OBJECT! This will create a spark which may ignite dust cloud.
HIGH VOLTAGE! READ AND UNDERSTAND ALL DIRECTIONS
BEFORE PROCEEDING! The power supply is a sealed unit and contains no user serviceable parts! Contact with the emitter when the button is depressed will result in an unpleasant shock! (If you have a medical condition or pacemaker check with your doctor before using.)
ELECTRICAL SAFETY DO’S:
- Make sure you, your work area, and your equipment are dry.
- If you are using an extension cord, make sure it is a grounded cord in sound condition with no damage or frays, and of the correct wire gauge.
ELECTRICAL SAFETY DON’TS:
- NEVER BYPASS THE GROUND PLUG. GROUNDING IS NECESSARY FOR PROPER OPERATION OF THE UNIT AND PREVENTS SHOCK.
- Do not touch the emitter until after the activation switch is released.
- Once you are spraying the part with the powder, avoid touching the gun to the part or other grounded objects.
- Do not step on, kink, or pull the wires. Before using the gun inspect the condition of all wires.
- Do not touch or hold the part while coating.
Before you begin using the HotCoat Dual-Voltage Powder Coating System make sure you have the following:
- A dedicated electric oven or toaster oven large enough to fit the parts you will be coating. If you'll occasionally
be coating larger parts, you may want one of our Infrared Light Curing Systems (#10180 and #10680). Do not use an oven used for food preparation or located in a living area, as mildly toxic fumes are given off by the powder during the curing process! DO NOT USE A GAS OVEN! Used household ovens can be obtained very easily for little or no money by checking your local newspaper classified section or by calling appliance stores and remodelers in your area.
- An air supply source for the gun. A modest air compressor capable of at least 1 cfm at 5-8 psi. You can even use a portable air tank with regulator. The air supply must be dry and the use of a moisture trap is strongly recommended.
- A grounded 110-120VAC 60/50hz. outlet or heavy-duty grounded extension cord to plug in the 6’ power cord. NOTE: Unit must be grounded to work properly and safely!
- A clean, safe, well-lit, well-ventilated work area.
- An activated charcoal respirator like our Bandit Respirator (#11455) to wear while the coating is being cured.
- A dust mask like our Dust Mask (#13000) to wear while handling and applying powder.
- High Temperature Silicone Plugs (set of 30, #10078) to seal threaded holes and close tolerance openings. These plugs also work great to support parts in the oven during curing (See Masking the Part, page 8)
- A spool of .041” Stainless Steel Safety Wire(#43045) to hold parts while powder coating and curing. It’s better to use clean wire than coated wire to prevent contaminants from falling on to the powdered surface
Electrical sub-assemblies are not replaceable. If you damage any of the electrical parts call Eastwood at 1-800-227-8321 and a Technical Representative will gladly assist you in finding the best resolution to the problem.
As with normal refinishing, powder can only be applied to clean, bare metal surfaces. Properly clean the part to be coated by removing all traces of old paint, rust, grease, oil, etc.
REMOVING OLD COATINGS To chemically strip off old finishes use Eastwood's Paint and Powder Remover. To mechanically strip the old finish use a Cleaning Disc (#31095), wire brush or sand paper to completely remove paint.
Heavy paint coatings are often more efficiently removed by using Paint Remover.
CHEMICAL RUST REMOVAL Once the part is free of paint chemically remove the rust with Eastwood Fast Etch
MECHANICAL RUST REMOVAL Rust can be removed with a wire brush, Cleaning Disc (#31095) or by
abrasive blasting. Eastwood has a wide variety of abrasive blasting equipment, including our blast cabinets and Blast out of a Bucket Gun.
FILLING MINOR LOW SPOTS Metal-2-Metal Polyester Filler (#10021Z) can be used as a filler for corroded or pitted areas prior to powder. Apply Metal-2-Metal as you would any body filler and finish by level sanding and feathering all edges with 180, 220, and 320 grit paper. Do not build filler more than 1/16" or lifting may occur during heat cure. Filler applications should be pre baked at 400°F for 20 minutes before final sanding and powder
coating to assure against shrinkage. If you prefer a single stage (non-catalyzed) filler, try Lab Metal 24 oz. net wt. (#10207Z) or Hi-Temp Lab Metal 24 oz. (10288Z).
GREASE AND OIL REMOVAL Metal part must be free of any oil, dirt, or other contaminants
before powder coating. Clean with Metal Wash (#10120), PRE Painting Prep (#10041Z), PRE Quarts (#10194ZP) or acetone.
MASKING PARTS Once the part is thoroughly dry the powder can be applied. Handle the cleaned part with vinyl or Nitrile Disposable Gloves (#43098 M, L, or XL) to avoid contamination. Finger prints can affect adhesion! Determine how the part should be positioned in the oven before coating. Use the High Temperature Plugs (#10078) and/or (#10027) to protect critical tolerance areas.
Both should be left on the part during the coating and curing process. Since the powder will coat around corners, be sure to mask all appropriate areas.
TECH TIP: Use aluminum foil to mask large areas or intricate parts.
HELPFUL HINT: Practice masking, applying powder, and curing test pieces prior to
coating final parts.
Preparing For Curing
HANGING OR PLACING THE PART FOR COATING Bend wire hooks to hold the part during powder application and curing. Our .041 Stainless Steel Safety Wire (#43045) works well for this application. Don't use a coated wire as debris from the wire coating may fall on the part during the curing process. High Temperature Plugs (#10078) can often be used to support the parts above the trays, and plug bolt holes.
PREHEATING THE OVEN
Before powder coating the part - preheat the oven to 400°F (204°C). NOTE: Preheat to 350°F for Gloss Clear (#10093). Check temperature with an oven thermometer or
the Non-Contact Infrared Thermometer (#11476).
USE OF OVEN TRAY Make sure the oven is clean. Use aluminum foil to keep racks clean. Practice moving part from area where powder will be applied to inside the oven to avoid damaging the uncured powder you will soon
TECH TIP: To minimize bumping the piece after its been coated: hang the piece from the oven rack,
clamp it to a bench or between two saw horses, apply the powder, and insert the rack with the piece hanging back into the oven to cure.
COATING POROUS MATERIALS In many cases, contaminants in porous materials will cause pits in the
powder. Porous cast iron, die cast, cast aluminum and magnesium parts trap contaminants, that, when heated will outgas and cause porosity problems when the powder is cured. See Preheating the Part, below. NOTE: Die-cast metal varies widely
in formulation, many of which can be difficult to powder coat and, in some cases may even melt at 400° F. Some aluminum and magnesium alloys can be weakened by exposure to the cure temperatures. Check with part manufacturer if unsure.
PREHEATING THE PART To prevent pits from occurring, preheat the clean part. The time that a part needs to be preheated varies with size. Preheat the part at 450°F for 20 - 50 minutes, remove from oven. Once part is cooled, use PRE Painting Prep or acetone to remove the newly exposed contaminants, repeat the same preheating cycle. Powder may be applied to hot or cool surface (see details about "Hot Application" on page 15).
Preparing To Powdercoat
Use a clean sheet of glossy paper (to avoid lint), a spoon, or a funnel to pour the powder into the cup. Fill the cup no more than 1" or 2" with your color of choice.
ATTACHING THE AIR SUPPLY TO THE GUN TECH TIP: Handle powder as if you were handling liquid paint. Use clean disposable gloves when handling powder to avoid contamination. Keep powder containers tightly closed. Connect a low pressure air line to the gun. The gun requires 1 or more cfm at 5 - 10 psi, with 8 psi being ideal. If you do not have an air compressor, a portable air tank with regulator can be used. The air must be moisture and oil free.
Never exceed the 10 psi!
FILLING GUN CUP Use a clean sheet of glossy paper or spoon to fill cup. Attach ground clamp to part.
CONNECTING THE GROUND CLIP Connect the ground clip to the part you are powder coating. Grounding the part provides a path for static charges to dissipate and attracts the powder.
CHECKING THE GUN SPRAY PATTERN Use optional deflector for tight recessed areas if you notice the powder is not adhering. Stop
spraying, install deflector with approximately 1/8" protruding through deflector and reapply powder to problem area. Pull the gun trigger to check the pattern. Unlike regular paint guns, the HotCoat gun creates a fog of charged particles.
Optional Deflector (emitter should extend out about 3/16" from the front of the deflector)
Before plugging in the unit, make sure that all the cords are not damaged or cut, uncoiled and free to move (do not depress the activation switch).
1. Hold the gun at various positions and angles to get the best application of powder over the entire part.
2. Plug the power supply into a grounded 110-120 VAC, 60/50 Hz source of electrical power.
3. Maintain approximately 4 inches between the gun tip and part being coated.
4. For most applications, the 15KV Power Setting is sufficient. Use of the 25KV setting is best suited for large objects such as wheels, intake manifolds, valve covers, etc. Also use the 25KV setting when applying second coats or clear coats to assure proper coverage.
IMPORTANT NOTE: On certain part configurations and contours, the use of the Dual-Voltage 25K setting
may be too high and actually induce a powder repelling static charge known in the industry as the
"Faraday-Cage Effect". Check position of Dual-Voltage Switch. If this should occur, stop all work, blow off clinging powder film then either wash and dry the part in warm water or preheat the part in an oven and re-apply powder taking note of the appropriate switch position.
5. Depress the activation switch while triggering the gun. Depressing the activation switch energizes the gun, charging the powder. Releasing the switch turns the power off.
6. For smaller parts or irregular surfaces, be sure the Optional Defl ector is not in place on the Emitter Rod at the discharge end of the gun.
7. Powder is difficult to apply in deep recessed areas or into corners. Try repositioning the part to allow gravity to help assure coverage in corners and reposition the gun. Practice on some scrap pieces of metal to obtain a uniform coating.
8. Move the gun in slightly different angles and in a circular motion to ensure that all areas of the part are covered (as shown above). Be sure to coat deeper crevices and inside corners first to prevent uneven coating. The coated surface will have a dull opaque coating of powder. Make sure all areas of the part are coated evenly. Bare metal should no longer be seen.
9. If you accidentally knock some powder off the part, it is usually best to blow all the powder off and start over. This is particularly important for the translucent colors which easily show blemishes.
10. Inspect part with a high intensity light to make sure you didn’t miss any areas. Touch up as necessary.
11. The gun becomes less efficient as powder builds up on the gun emitter. To remove powder build-up from the emitter, release the activation switch. Wipe off the emitter with a dry cloth.
Curing the Powder
Powder coatings cure with heat. The high temperature changes the powder from it’s dry solid state to a "glossy" liquid state. This is called the "flow out" or "gloss over". The time the powder is in this liquid state and "flows" is called the gel time. To help maximize chip resistance and produce a smooth coating, the substrate (piece you are coating) must be brought up to the cure temperature quickly and allowed to stay at that temperature for the specified cure time. To properly cure the HotCoat powders and achieve full chemical, heat (up to 350°F), and chip resistance, along with the smoothest possible finish follow the steps below. Note: Most powders inherently have a slight orange peel (the surface condition and preparation will affect smoothness). Refer to the troubleshooting section (page 15) for more information, and follow the cure process below:
1. Always preheat the oven to 450°F (350°F for 10093 and 10286 Gloss Clear). All ovens vary; this may take 5-10 minutes to achieve 450°F.
2. Carefully place the coated piece into the 450°F oven and close the door.
3. Check the piece every 5 minutes until the entire piece has fl owed out or glossed over. Some edges or thinner cast sections of the piece may flow out or gloss over early, but wait until the entire piece has flowed out.
4. At this point, set oven temperature to 400°F (350°F for 10093 and 10286 Gloss Clears) and your timer to 20 minutes.
5. Always read powder instructions for specific cure temperatures.
6. Allow the piece to cure with the oven on for the entire 20 minutes.
7. After the 20 minute cure, remove the part from the oven or turn the oven off, crack the door open and allow the piece to slowly cool.
8. Once cool, the piece can be second coated, or the tape, plugs, and other masking material can be removed, and the part returned to service.
NOTE: Larger and/or heavy cast pieces may take 10-30 minutes to flow out or gloss over - this in normal. Simply continue to check the piece until complete flow has been achieved, then set your temperature and timer as described above for curing.
ALSO: Gloss should go into an oven preheated to 350° F and allowed to cure at 350° F after complete flow out has occurred. Curing at higher temperatures may cause yellowing.
TECH TIP: Use clean disposable gloves during all gun cleaning operations. It is also important to unplug the gun first and keep your dust mask on while cleaning the gun.
When you are finished using one color you must clean the gun before using another. To clean the unit, unplug it so no voltage is in the unit. Disconnect the air supply.
Unscrew the cup; pour the remaining powder back into the original powder container.Always store powder in the original powder container.
Using compressed air, clean the discharge and pick up tubes, and cup thoroughly with no more than 30 psi compressed air. If in place, with your gloves on, gently twist off the deflector.
Do not use solvents when cleaning your powder coating system. The gun and components are designed to be cleaned with compressed air only. With your blow gun, thoroughly clean the inside and outside of all the tubes and defl ector. Direct air into the nozzle and the pick up tube to make sure no powder remains.
The only other cleaning required is to clean up the powder on the floor or workspace.
Powder dust in heavy concentrations is potentially fl ammable! Due to the possible explosion risk, never use an electric vacuum, ShopVac or wet/dry vac to clean up powder! Always sweep up powder.
Recycling powder is not recommended as any debris will result in a rough surface and a compromised finish. Contaminated powder can be safely disposed of in the trash.
Before re-connecting your powder gun be sure to change the air pressure from 30 psi back to 8 PSI or damage will occur! The cup and lid assemblies are designed for no more than 10 PSI. Replace your moisture filter regularly, as moisture will build up even when the gun is not in use.
Putting Parts Back Into Service
Powder coating is an extremely durable flexible coating. However care needs to be exercised when bolting powder coated components in place. To avoid chipping use steel or nylon washers under nut and bolt heads.
TIPS ON CARE OF POWDER COATED SURFACES: Powder coated surfaces easily shed dirt. Wash with a dish soap and water solution. Automotive (non-abrasive paint polish) may be used to remove water spotting and enhance the gloss.
Applying Second Coats
Typically, one coat of powder is all that is needed. However, some finishes such as Argent Silver Base (#10102), Extreme Chrome (#15999), Chrome Smoke (#10543) and Gray Metallic (#10341) need to be top-coated with a clear or translucent finish to protect the metallic coatings from oxidation and dulling over time. Powder can act as an electrical insulator. The Dual-Voltage 25KV switch setting is recommended to provide the power needed to penetrate a powder coated surface for applying multiple coats.
1. Once the first cure is complete, allow the part to cool without touching the surface. Once cool, support it as you did for the first coat, in your spray booth or work area.
2. Load the gun with the appropriate color or clear powder about half full.
3. Switch the Dual-Voltage switch to the High Frequency 25KV setting.
4. Attach the ground clip directly to a bare metal area on your part. You can do this by threading in an old bolt into an existing hole, or simply scraping the powder from an inconspicuous area, and attaching the clip.
5. Apply the second coat in the same manner as the first, concentrating on the deep recessed areas first. A good cloud of powder is critical in getting a good coating. If you have difficulty applying the 2nd coat, see troubleshooting section.
6. After the part is properly coated, remove the ground clip. If you have a bare spot where the ground clip was connected, you can now apply powder with the gun to cover that spot.
7. Cure this second coat in the oven, in the same manner as the first coat. Note: Gloss Clear (10093) should go into an oven preheated to 350° F and allowed to cure for 20 minutes at 350° F after complete flow out has occurred. Curing at
higher temperatures may cause yellowing.
PROBLEM: Pitted Finish
- Make sure the gun is thoroughly cleaned before changing to another powder.
- Make sure part is completely cleaned of all contaminants (see page 7).
- After cooling, wet sand the areas with 400 grit to level pits. A second coat of powder can then be applied to the entire part.
PROBLEM: Coating Porous Materials In some cases, contaminants in porous materials will cause pits in the powder. Porous cast iron, die cast, cast aluminum, and magnesium parts trap contaminants that, when heated, will outgas and cause porosity problems as the powder is cured. To avoid this, follow these Preheating instructions: For large or heavy parts, and to prevent pitting from occurring, preheat the part to 450°F for 30-60 minutes. The time that a part needs to be preheated varies with size and density. Heavy cast parts will require more time, thinner lighter pieces, less time. Once the part has cooled, use PRE Painting Prep (#10041Z) or acetone to remove the newly exposed contaminants. Wipe the part repeatedly until no further contaminants come off on a clean white rag. Let the part cool to room temperature before applying the powder. IMPORTANT NOTE: Die-cast metal and solders vary widely in formulation, many of which can be difficult to powder coat and, in some cases may even melt at 400° F.
PROBLEM: Orange Peel "Orange Peel" is when the coated surface resembles the surface texture of an orange. A certain amount of orange peel is unavoidable especially with polyester based powders. An orange peel condition can often be removed by sanding the part with 600 grit sand paper (wet) and compounding as you would conventional automotive finishes. The main cause of orange peel is insufficient coating, over-baking, or excessive powder build up. You will know if powder build up occurs because the powder will start to stand on its end like hair. If this happens, stop applying powder and with light air pressure blow off some of the powder. If powder does not
apply evenly due to moisture build up, replace moisture trap on gun and use fresh powder. Cured powder can be finished in the same manner as liquid paint.
PROBLEM: Poor Spray Pattern If the gun does not spray, the air pressure could be too low. Moisture could be clogging the Disposable Filter (#34066). Replace if necessary. The level of powder
in the cup should be at least one inch deep from the bottom of the cup to flow efficiently through the gun. The deflector is not required for most coating conditions. If in place, remove it. If required, it should be about 3/16" from the end of emitter.
PROBLEM: No Coverage or Poor Coverage in Recessed Areas This is likely the result of a repelling electrical charge build-up known as the "Faraday - Cage Effect". Several procedures are available to remedy this condition:
- Immediately switch the Dual-Voltage to 15KV then hold the gun so that the side or peripheral discharge of powder goes into crevices, recesses, and sharp angles. Exercise extreme care to maintain at least 3" from part being coated to
avoid a spark.
- If this is does not resolve the condition, blow off all powder then heat part to dissipate all static build up. It is also possible to wet the part to dissipate the charge then dry thoroughly and quickly with compressed air.
- When re-applying powder, be sure the Dual-Voltage setting is at 15KV and apply powder to the problem areas first then move to other areas until covered.
PROBLEM: Poor Coverage When Applying 2nd Coat (Hot Application) Powders can be applied to hot surfaces. To use this technique, pre-heat the part to cure temp. This may take 10-40 minutes depending on size. The time that a part needs to be preheated varies with size and density. Heavy cast parts will require more time, thinner lighter pieces, less time. After pre-heating, remove part from oven and immediately apply powder. You will notice that powder will flow immediately upon contact. Exercise care to avoid drips and runs. Place coated part
back into pre-heated oven set at cure temp for an additional 20 minutes to complete the cure.
Removing Cured Powder
The coating can be removed using Eastwood’s Paint and Powder Remover Qt. (#10550ZP). Remember powder coatings are more solvent resistant than other coatings and may require more time than paint to remove. To speed results, cover the part with a heavy coating of remover and cover the remover with a plastic bag to prevent evaporation. Plastic Media such as our Poly Abrasive Material also works well in removing powder coating. Eastwood has a wide selection of abrasive equipment that can use this material.
If you have any questions about the use of this product, please contact The Eastwood Technical Assistance Service Department: 1-800-544-5118 email: email@example.com
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